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"Changing the Way the World Makes and Uses Energy"
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Flywheel Energy Storage
"The Future of Energy is 'Net Zero Energy' and 'Way Beyond Solar!'"
What is Flywheel Energy Storage?
A Flywheel Energy Storage system is supposed to act as mechanical batteries that store power kinetically in the form of a rotating mass, or "flywheel."
When the grid goes down, the power stored by the rotating flywheel is converted to electrical energy through the flywheel’s integrated electric generator. The system provides the DC energy to the Uninterruptible Power Supplies or "UPS" system until grid power is restored or the facility's back-up power generator can be started. Once either the utility is restored or the genset provides power to the input of the UPS system, the Flywheel Energy Storage system will be re-charged by taking some current from the DC bus of the Flywheel Energy Storage until it is back up to full speed.
Problems of Flywheel Energy Storage
Mechanical - moving parts translate into high maintenance and operations as well as break-downs.
Operate at high speeds - some flywheel energy storage systems spin at 24,000 RPMs and higher.
"Wobble" effect - the flywheel spins at high-speed and its' inertia tends to make it wobble and exerts enormous force on the bearings as the flywheel works against the "natural axis" of the flywheel. To counter this, most flywheel energy storage companies use expensive bearings and magnets as well as expensive materials (high-grade carbon fiber &/or high-grade steel) to counter the wobble and spinning forces on the flywheel.
time - TFrom the time that a flywheel energy storage system has been
"wound-up" and ready for use, to the time it can actually be used in
means that they are not able to be used for long-term applications. Most
flywheel energy storage systems are therefore limited to short term applications
ranging anywhere for a few minutes up to an
hour. This means that the actual run-time periods while deploying flywheel energy storage systems are very expensive, i.e. $300,000 to $3 million / MWh (megawatt hour).
Expensive to buy, own and operate - The high costs of flywheel energy storage upwards - from $300,000 to $3 million / MWh (megawatt hour) for the best flywheel energy storage systems are not competitive with other energy storage and frequency regulation alternatives, particularly when the operating and maintenance costs are factored in. The biggest and best of all flywheel energy storage companies, Beacon Power, filed for bankruptcy in 2011.
Solutions and Alternatives to Flywheel Energy Storage
There are a number of alternatives for companies considering Flywheel Energy Storage systems for UPS, Frequency Regulation, Demand Side Management and Clean Power Generation. In terms of cost and run-time, CHP systems, operating in either cogeneration or trigeneration mode, are nearly impossible to compete with.
CHP Systems are inxpensive to buy, own and operate:
CHP systems cost +/- $2 million / MW to buy. With natural gas at $3.00 / mmbtu, CHP systems, operating in either cogeneration or trigeneration mode have a fuel cost of +/- $0.03 (3 cents) / kWh and can run practically 24 x 7 x 365.
We can package a CHP system, operating in either cogeneration or trigeneration and have it installed, commissioned and running in about 2 months. Call / e-mail us for more information or a price quote. See pictures below of a 900 kW CHP system that was custom-built for one of our clients.
"Net Zero Energy Revenues to Reach
$690 Billion by 2020
$1.3 Trillion by 2035"
~ Navigant Research
"Net Zero Energy Buildings Are Coming -
What About The Buildings Already Standing?"
"Net Zero Energy Buildings Are Next Frontier"
~ Sustainable Business
Zero Energy Buildings Are Next Frontier
Zero Energy Market to Become $1.3 Trillion/year Industry by 2035
Net Zero Energy Buildings Are Coming - What About The Buildings Already Standing?
"Annual Worldwide Revenues from Frequency Regulation
Services Will Surpass $27 Billion by 2022." ~ Pike Research
"Changing the Way the World Makes and Uses Energy" sm
About Flywheel Energy Storage
Flywheel Energy Storage Project Overview
This project demonstrates a Flywheel Energy Storage system designed to respond to a regional transmission operator signal to quickly add or subtract power from the grid in a frequency regulation support mode. Using this concept, the flywheel recycles energy (store energy when generation exceeds loads; discharge energy when load exceeds generation) instead of trying to constantly adjust generator output.
The Purpose of the Flywheel Energy Storage Project
This project is being sponsored to determine the relative benefits of having faster responding generation resources. Additionally, understanding the response time of a flywheel storage system as compared to traditional generator response time will provide a better determination of the required sizing for flywheel and other fast response systems.
When aggregated to reach appropriate output/input levels there are many benefits that a flywheel energy storage can offer to the electric grid. The primary benefits are:
Increased Available energy: Because present day generators need to be operated below their maximum capability to provide regulation, they are not available to provide their maximum power. Typically generators need to be below their maximum capacity by 2 times the amount of regulation in order to provide headroom for safe operation. If all regulation were accomplished by Flywheel Energy Storage system, then there would be an additional 2-4 % generation capacity without adding new generators.
power generation and decentralized
projects with Local Voltage Support: Several Projects have already shown the
benefits of using flywheels for local voltage support. This includes a
project on the NY City transit system, where ten 1.6 KWh flywheels provide
support between train stations. As flywheel storage increases, as will be
demonstrated by this project, the feasibility of larger scale application of
Energy Storage system for local voltage support will be more practical.
Flywheel Energy Storage diagram courtesy of Dept of Energy
The Flywheel Energy Storage system consists of an array of flywheel energy storage modules and power conversion electronics packaged in a standard 12’ x 40’ shipping container. This mobile container would interface with the grid’s three-phase 480-volt cables via a step up transformer. This matrix is capable of storing and recycling 250 kWh’s of energy. The rated discharge rate of a matrix is 1 MW therefore each container will provide rated power for 15 minutes or lower power for an extended period.
Monitoring and data acquisition has been specified such that system availability and power/energy parameters will be accessible via the website. Any time the system is operated, the kilowatts supplied or absorbed by the storage unit and the total system efficiency will be viewable via graphical display by day, week, month, etc.
While performing Frequency Regulation, the Flywheel Energy Storage system will receive two input signals from the System Operator.
Regulation Signal (RS): This will be the amount of regulation to be provided over the next time step. This value will be between (-)100KW and (+) 100KW. Minus refers to absorbing 100kW of power from the Grid. Plus refers to injecting 100 kW of power to the grid. The regulation signal refers to the amount of power being absorbed or injected relative to a base set point as described by signal 2. The amount of power being injected or absorbed will be as measured downstream of the Flywheel Energy Storage system and upstream of the step up transformer. This regulation signal will be updated every 4 seconds.
Set Point (SP): This will be the nominal level of power being removed from the grid during the time on regulation. It will be a percentage of the full regulation signal and will be a variable during the demonstration phase of testing. This setting will remain constant over an agreed to time period – usually one to 24 hours. In addition to the set point and regulation signal the master controller will have input from the flywheel controller to know how much energy is in each flywheel. The system controller will then send a signal to the flywheel controllers, and load bank to control the power flow within and to and from the Flywheel Energy Storage system based on these inputs.
The system will be installed and demonstrated at a location in California. It will be run for a period of six months to demonstrate its ability to interface with the ISO signals and grid. Data will be independently collected through funding provided by the U.S. DOE and used to estimate the system performance over time.
The Flywheel Energy Storage system will follow the regulation signal within a fraction of a percent. Unlike generation based Frequency Regulation, no fuel is consumed, and no emissions are generated. Analysis of presently used Frequency Regulation signals indicates that an energy storage module, which can store or deliver 1 MW for 15 minutes, would provide regulation services superior to services currently provided by generators. After development testing is completed the Flywheel Energy Storage system and will be commissioned and put on automatic control.
What is Battery Energy Storage?
Battery Energy Storage, and Battery Energy Storage systems, use stored electrical power in batteries, and feed this energy to the electric grid (building, or facility) at times when it makes economic sense. For a "Net Zero Energy" building or facility, a Solar Cogeneration, or Solar Trigeneration energy system is used that stores excess solar power in the Battery Energy Storage system during the daytime, for use when the sun goes down, and during inclement weather.
What is Frequency Regulation?
The electric grid, because supply and demand of electricity is always changing requires continuous and instantaneous balancing of supply and demand of electricity – this continuous and instantaneous balancing of supply and demand of electricity is known as "frequency regulation."
What is "Power Factor" and "Power Factor Correction?"
Power factor is a measure of how efficiently, or inefficiently, that electrical power is used by a customer. For industrial customers, a low power factor is generally caused by inductive loads such as transformers, electric motors and high-intensity discharge lighting. Customers that do not use electrical power efficiently are being charged additional fees for the inefficient use of power by their electric utility company.
An electric utility's power load on an electrical distribution system fall into one of three categories; resistive, inductive or capacitive. In most industrial facilities, the most common power usages are "inductive." Examples of inductive loads include transformers, fluorescent lighting and AC induction motors. Most inductive loads use a conductive coil winding to produce an electromagnetic field which permits the motor to function.
inductive loads require two different types of power for the motor to operate:
Active power (measured in kW or kilowatts) - this power produces the motive force
Reactive power (kvar) - this energizes the magnetic field of the motor.
The operating power from the distribution system is composed of both active (working) and reactive (non-working) elements. The active power does useful work in driving the motor whereas the reactive power only provides the magnetic field. Unfortunately, electric utility's customers are charged for both active and reactive power.
Example: A customer's power factor drops, the system becomes less efficient. A drop from 1.0 to 0.9 results in 15% more current being required for the same load. A power factor of 0.7 requires approximately 40% more current; and a power factor of 0.5 requires approximately 100% (twice as much) to handle the same load. The answer to these problems is to reduce the reactive power drawn from the supply by improving the power factor.
If an AC motor were 100% efficient it would consume only active power. However, since most AC motors are only 75% to 80% efficient, they operate at a lower power factor. This means inefficient and even "wasteful" energy usage and cost efficiency because most electric utilities charge penalties for poor, inefficient power factor.
Simply installing capacitors will improve a commercial or industrial company's power factor and will result in savings on their electricity bill every month!
Additional potential benefits for correcting poor power factor include:
Reduction of heating losses in transformers and distribution equipment
Longer equipment life
Stabilized voltage levels
Increased capacity of your existing system and equipment
Some of the information above from the DOE.gov with permission
"Changing the Way the World Makes and Uses Energy" sm
Battery Energy Storage * Bulk Energy Storage * Clean Power Generation * Compressed Air Energy Storage
Cogeneration * Demand Side Management * Distributed Energy Resources * Dispatchable Wind * EcoGeneration
Emissions Abatement * Energy Master Planning * Frequency Regulation * Molten Salt Storage * Net Zero Energy
Peak Shifting * Power Purchase Agreements * Pumped Hydro Storage * Rooftop PV * Solar Cogeneration
Solar Thermal Systems * Solar Trigeneration * Trigeneration * Waste Heat Recovery
The founder of the Renewable Energy Institute (REI) was first involved in Net Zero Energy buildings and Solar Trigeneration sm energy system in 2001 - 2002. This started with family-owned real estate developments in Northern and Southern California. This interest was accelerated when REI's founder was introduced to the President of a solar company in Los Angeles and their client, the Audubon Nature Center at Deb's Park (Los Angeles) that was planning to build a new 5,000 sf office and conference center. Except, the new building for the Audubon Nature Center was about 1/2 mile from the end of the power lines and a very costly extension of the power lines to their new facility forced them to consider a solar solution. When the Audubon Nature Center's new 5,000 sf office and conference center was completed in 2003, the facility not only featured the Solar Trigeneration sm energy system - they were awarded one of the first Platinum LEED Awards by the USGBC - and the powerlines were still 1/2 mile away! To this day, 100% of the power and energy for the Audubon Nature Center's building is supplied by the Solar Trigeneration sm energy system - whether at 12 noon, or 12 midnite. (The Audubon's facility also includes a battery energy storage system for back-up power generated by the Rooftop PV panels as well as a thermal energy storage system that stores the excess hot water generated by the evacuated tube collectors).
These early projects led to more client inquiries and engagements with real estate developers, architects and building owners in Southern California, Louisiana and Texas and the advent of a growing Net Zero Energy industry along with Solar Cogeneration sm & Solar Trigeneration sm energy systems. This culminated in a family-owned 200 (Net Zero Energy) home real estate development in Desert Hot Springs which has been approved but not yet constructed.
During this time, the REI's Founder became a volunteer and Advisor to the University of Texas' Solar Decathlon Competition. He coordinated the donation of the same solar thermal system used at the Audubon Nature Center's facility in Los Angeles, for UT's entry in the 2002 Solar Decathlon Competition in Washington, D.C. UT's entry in the Solar Decathlon Competition placed 1st in the domestic hot water competition that year (2002) and 4th overall, out of 20 universities that had entered.
In 2006, after Hurricane Kattrina devastated New Orleans, the REI was formed and several of the REI's board members and a Professor from the University of Texas School of Architecture formed a design team to enter the Brad Pitt/Global Green Rebuild New Orleans Competition. Our entry also focused on sustainable building solutions and materials as well as the Net Zero Energy concepts, incorporating once again, a Solar Trigeneration sm energy system.
Today, the REI "Flagship" has chartered the Renewable Energy Institute in Florida, with discussions to open REI state chapters in Arizona, California, Hawaii, Minnesota and Oregon.
The REI supports greater use of Net Zero Energy systems by architects, builders, homeowners and owners of commercial buildings. This includes "upgrading" homes and commercial buildings to Net Zero Energy. The REI provides Net Zero Energy; advertising, business development, conferences, e-commerce, education, marketing, online marketing, public relations, renewable energy, sales and strategic marketing solutions for architects, builders, cities, colleges, HVAC contractors, Net Zero Energy developers, real estate developers and universities.
"Changing the Way the World Makes and Uses Energy" sm
CHP Systems * EcoGeneration * Energy Master Planning * Net Zero Energy
Pressure to Power * Solar Cogeneration * Trigeneration * Waste Heat Recovery
That produce results for our Clients:
Greater market share
Increased shareholder value
People, Planet & Profits
American Energy Plan
3-5 million new jobs
Fuel Savings of > $1.50/gallon
American Energy Independence
Ends the worst economic depression of all time
hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of billions of dollars every year for oil,
much of it from the Middle East, is just about the single stupidest thing that
modern society could possibly do. It’s very difficult to think of anything
more idiotic than that.”
~ R. James Woolsey, Jr., former Director of the CIA
Price of Addiction|
to Foreign Oil
According to R. James Woolsey, for Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, “The basic insight is to realize that global warming, the geopolitics of oil, and warfare in the Persian Gulf are not separate problems — they are aspects of a single problem, the West’s dependence on oil."
We support the Renewable Energy Institute and the American Energy Plan by donating a portion of our profits to the Renewable Energy Institute in their efforts to reduce fossil fuel use through renewable energy and their goals to end fossil fuel pollution by reducing/eliminating Carbon Emissions, Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Greenhouse Gas Emissions.
The Renewable Energy Institute is "Changing The Way The World Makes and Uses Energy by Providing Research & Development, Funding and Resources That Creates Sustainable Energy via 'Carbon Free Energy,' 'Clean Power Generation' and 'Pollution Free Power' Through Expanding the use of Renewable Energy Technologies."
#Flywheel #FlywheelEnergy #Energy #EnergyStorage #FlywheelEnergyStorage
"Changing the Way the World Makes and Uses Energy"
Flywheel Energy Storage
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